NIH, NCI - Cannabis and Cannabinoids Overview for Health Professionals

A brief overview of Cannabis and Cannabinoids for Health Professionals produced by the NIH, National Cancer Institute, covering both pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Overview

We will now look at other articles relating to Uterine, Testicular and Pancreatic Cancers, then Brain Cancer and Mouth and Throat Cancer.

Uterine, Testicular and Pancreatic Cancers
Cannabis-derived substances in cancer therapy--an emerging anti-inflammatory role for the cannabinoids.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20925645

Brain Cancer
Inhibition of glioma growth in vivo by selective activation of the CB(2) cannabinoid receptor.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11479216

Mouth And Throat Cancer
Cannabinoids inhibit cellular respiration of human oral cancer cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20516734

Moving forward we will continue to examine the latest scientific research into Cannabinoids and their effect on specific types of Cancer.

Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Blood Cancer, Skin Cancer, Liver Cancer, Cancers Of The Head And Neck, Cholangiocarcinoma, Leukemia, Translocation-positive Rhabdomyosarcoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Thyroid Carcinoma and Colon Cancer.

National Institute of Health (NIH) - Scientific Studies into Cannabinoids and Cancer - Part 5

We will now look into Cannabinoids Impact on Tumour Cells.

A vast range of scientific studies are now targeting Tumour cells and the effects of cannabioids on cell growth inhibition and apoptosis.

Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1576089/

The expression level of CB1 and CB2 receptors determines their efficacy at inducing apoptosis in astrocytomas.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20090845

In vivo effects of cannabinoids on macromolecular biosynthesis in Lewis lung carcinomas.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/616322

Cannabinoid receptor systems: therapeutic targets for tumour intervention.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14640910

Predominant CB2 receptor expression in endothelial cells of glioblastoma in humans.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19480992

Hypothesis: cannabinoid therapy for the treatment of gliomas
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15275820

Involvement of cannabinoids in cellular proliferation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15638794

Cannabinoids induce apoptosis of pancreatic tumor cells via endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16818650

Cannabinoids and gliomas.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952650

Opposite changes in cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor expression in human gliomas.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20307616

The stress-regulated protein p8 mediates cannabinoid-induced apoptosis of tumor cells.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16616335

The CB2 cannabinoid receptor signals apoptosis via ceramide-dependent activation of the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16624285

Anti-tumoral action of cannabinoids: involvement of sustained ceramide accumulation and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10700234

Down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 in gliomas: a new marker of cannabinoid antitumoral activity?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17675107

Antitumor effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, on human glioma cell lines.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14617682

Endocannabinoids as emerging suppressors of angiogenesis and tumor invasion (review).
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17342320

Cannabinoid receptors in human astroglial tumors.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16893424

Cannabinoids induce cancer cell proliferation via tumor necrosis factor alpha-converting enzyme (TACE/ADAM17)-mediated transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15026328

Our next instalments will look into specific types of Cancer and their interaction with Cannabinoids.

Uterine, Testicular and Pancreatic Cancers, Brain Cancer, Mouth And Throat Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Blood Cancer, Skin Cancer, Liver Cancer, Cancers Of The Head And Neck, Cholangiocarcinoma, Leukemia, Translocation-positive Rhabdomyosarcoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Thyroid Carcinoma and Colon Cancer.

National Institute of Health (NIH) - Scientific Studies into Cannabinoids and Cancer - Part 4

This section is quite direct and to the point - Cannabis Kills Cancer Cells. These studies go a long way to proving the effectiveness of Cannabinoids and their definitive impact on cancer.

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression in human breast cancer cells through Cdc2 regulation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16818634

Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12648025

Cannabinoids and gliomas.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17952650

Different views on the association between cannabinoids and cancer
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16835997

We will now look at Cannabinoids In Health And Disease and Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer.

Cannabinoids In Health And Disease
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18286801

Intestinal Inflammation And Cancer
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442536

Starting with an overview of the impact of Cannabinoids on Tumour Cells, we will then move on to individual types of Cancer and how Cannabinoids can play a major role in the treatment of these conditions.

Uterine, Testicular and Pancreatic Cancers, Brain Cancer, Mouth And Throat Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Blood Cancer, Skin Cancer, Liver Cancer, Cancers Of The Head And Neck, Cholangiocarcinoma, Leukemia, Translocation-positive Rhabdomyosarcoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Thyroid Carcinoma and Colon Cancer.

National Institute of Health (NIH) - Scientific Studies into Cannabinoids and Cancer - Part 3

Welcome to the third entry in our series of how “Cannabinoids Have Proven to Kill Cancer.” This week’s topic is “Cannabis Partially/Fully Induced Cancer Death”

The following studies show how Cannabinoids induce partial or complete apoptosis of Cancer Cells - apoptosis is basically cell death, in essence the cell commits suicide and this process is often referred to as programmed cell death.

There are quite a lot of articles to digest, but this in turn gives a great overview of the amount and quality of the scientific work that is being undertaken globally. This work increases our understanding of the potential health benefits of the main Cannabinoids in the fight against Cancer, which is the main hurdle for the availability of solutions for patients.

Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-induced apoptosis in the thymus and spleen as a mechanism of immunosuppression in vitro and in vivo.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12130702

Cannabinoid-induced apoptosis in immune cells as a pathway to immunosuppression.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19457575

High concentrations of cannabinoids activate apoptosis in human U373MG glioma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18615640

Cannabinoid receptor agonists are mitochondrial inhibitors: a unified hypothesis of how cannabinoids modulate mitochondrial function and induce cell death.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17931597

Antineoplastic and apoptotic effects of cannabinoids. N-acylethanolamines: protectors or killers?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18438336

The dual effects of delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol on cholangiocarcinoma cells: anti-invasion activity at low concentration and apoptosis induction at high concentration.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19916793

A comparative study on cannabidiol-induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18387516

Arachidonylethanolamide induces apoptosis of human glioma cells through vanilloid receptor-1.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15453094

Amphiregulin is a factor for resistance of glioma cells to cannabinoid-induced apoptosis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19229996

Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol induces apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9771884

Cannabinoids inhibit glioma cell invasion by down-regulating matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18339876

Cannabinoids protect astrocytes from ceramide-induced apoptosis through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12133838

Effects on cell viability.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16596790

Control of the cell survival/death decision by cannabinoids.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11269508

Cannabinoids and ceramide: two lipids acting hand-by-hand.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15958274

Cannabinoid action induces autophagy-mediated cell death through stimulation of ER stress in human glioma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19425170

Cannabinoids induce glioma stem-like cell differentiation and inhibit gliomagenesis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17202146

De novo-synthesized ceramide is involved in cannabinoid-induced apoptosis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11903061

Cannabinoids down-regulate PI3K/Akt and Erk signalling pathways and activate proapoptotic function of Bad protein.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15451022

Effect of a synthetic cannabinoid agonist on the proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20336665

Pharmacological synergism between cannabinoids and paclitaxel in gastric cancer cell lines.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19394652

Endocannabinoids and fatty acid amides in cancer, inflammation and related disorders.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11106791

The endocannabinoid anandamide neither impairs in vitro T-cell function nor induces regulatory T-cell generation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19189659

Cannabinoid derivatives induce cell death in pancreatic MIA PaCa-2 cells via a receptor-independent mechanism.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16500647

The CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 reduces viability of human Kaposi's sarcoma cells in vitro.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19539619

Apoptosis induced in HepG2 cells by the synthetic cannabinoid WIN: involvement of the transcription factor PPARgamma.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19059457

The non-psychoactive cannabidiol triggers caspase activation and oxidative stress in human glioma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16909207

Cannabinoids as potential new therapy for the treatment of gliomas.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18088200

Anandamide induces apoptosis in human cells via vanilloid receptors. Evidence for a protective role of cannabinoid receptors.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10913156

Plant-derived cannabinoids modulate the activity of transient receptor potential channels of ankyrin type-1 and melastatin type-8.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18354058

A metabolically stable analogue of anandamide, Met-F-AEA, inhibits human thyroid carcinoma cell lines by activation of apoptosis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19189054

Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol inhibits cell cycle progression by downregulation of E2F1 in human glioblastoma multiforme cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17934890

A cannabinoid quinone inhibits angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16571653

Antitumorigenic effects of cannabinoids beyond apoptosis.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19889794

Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression is involved in R(+)-methanandamide-induced apoptotic death of human neuroglioma cells.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15361550

Stay up to date over the coming weeks, where will be looking at the following ares of research into Cannabinoids and Cancer.

Cannabis Kills Cancer Cells, Cannabinoids In Health And Disease, Intestinal Inflammation and Cancer and Cannabinoids Impact on Tumour Cells.

We will then move on to individual types of Cancer and how Cannabinoids can play a major role in the treatment of these.

Uterine, Testicular and Pancreatic Cancers, Brain Cancer, Mouth And Throat Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Blood Cancer, Skin Cancer, Liver Cancer, Cancers Of The Head And Neck, Cholangiocarcinoma, Leukemia, Translocation-positive Rhabdomyosarcoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Thyroid Carcinoma and Colon Cancer.

National Institute of Health (NIH) - Scientific Studies into Cannabinoids and Cancer - Part 2

Welcome to the second installment of our series covering how "Cannabinoids Have Been Proven To Kill Cancer."

We will continue to look at over 100 studies from The National Institute of Health. This week's topic is "Cannabis Inhibits Cancer Cell Invasion."
The study below details how CBD (Cannbidiol) inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19914218

Related studies are shown below;

Inhibition of cancer cell invasion by cannabinoids via increased expression of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1.[J Natl Cancer Inst. 2008]
 

Cannabidiol inhibits lung cancer cell invasion and metastasis via intercellular adhesion molecule-1.[FASEB J. 2012]

Remember to stay up to date with us, as we will be looking at the following areas in the upcoming weeks;

Cannabis Partially/Fully Induced Cancer Death, Cannabis Kills Cancer Cells, Cannabinoids In Health And Disease, Intestinal Inflammation And Cancer, Cannabinoids Impact on Tumour Cells, Uterine, Testicular and Pancreatic Cancers, Brain Cancer, Mouth and Throat Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Blood Cancer, Skin Cancer, Liver Cancer, Cancers Of The Head And Neck, Cholangiocarcinoma, Leukemia, Translocation-positive Rhabdomyosarcoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Thyroid Carcinoma and Colon Cancer.


National Institute of Health (NIH) - Scientific Studies into Cannabinoids and Cancer - Part 1

It really is time to start believing the hype - "Cannabinoids Have Been Proven To Kill Cancer."

If you are in any doubt regarding the effectiveness of Cannabinoids for killing cancer cells, please review the latest scientific research from the National Institute of Health - NIH.

We have over 100 studies from leading scientists at the NIH to review, so we will break it down into manageable segments and will start with an area entitled Cannabis and Cancer.

Remember to stay up to date with us, as we will be looking at the following areas in the upcoming weeks;

Cannabis Inhibits Cancer Cell Invasion, Cannabis Partially/Fully Induced Cancer Death, Cannabis Kills Cancer Cells, Cannabinoids In Health And Disease, Intestinal Inflammation And Cancer, Cannabinoids Impact on Tumour Cells, Uterine, Testicular and Pancreatic Cancers, Brain Cancer, Mouth and Throat Cancer, Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Blood Cancer, Skin Cancer, Liver Cancer, Cancers Of The Head And Neck, Cholangiocarcinoma, Leukemia, Translocation-positive Rhabdomyosarcoma, Lymphoma, Melanoma, Thyroid Carcinoma and Colon Cancer.

Simply follow the links below through to the results of the latest NIH studies.

Cannabis And Cancer

Inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by cannabinoids.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12514108

Cannabinoids inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway in gliomas.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15313899

Cannabidiol enhances the inhibitory effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol on human glioblastoma cell proliferation and survival.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20053780

Cannabinoids for cancer treatment: progress and promise.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18199524

Cannabinoid receptor ligands as potential anticancer agents--high hopes for new therapies?
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19589225

Cannabinoids and cell fate.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12182964

Cannabinoids in the treatment of cancer.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19442435

The endocannabinoid system as a target for the development of new drugs for cancer therapy
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12723496

Cannabinoids and cancer.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16250836

HU-331, a novel cannabinoid-based anticancer topoisomerase II inhibitor.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17237277


Cannabinoids can be an effective treatment for epilepsy due to their anti-seizure properties.

This young child used to have up to 500 seizures a day, and had taken 25,000 different pills by the time he was 5 years old. CBD has changed his life, the first day he took CBD he was seizure free. Video brought to you by AOL Lifestyle.

Vanderbilt University study goes a long way to prove how CBD dramatically reduces seizures in pediatric patients. Republished by Analytical Cannabis.


Overview of the components of Cannabis.

 

Medicinal Cannabis or Medical Marijuana has been in the news a great deal recently, with many countries around the globe legalizing Cannabis for medical purposes, these include; the USA, Canada, Israel, the Netherlands, Spain, Portugal, Switzerland and Uruguay among many others. Many people are unaware, but the UK is actually the world's largest producer and exporter of Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes.

Follows is a brief overview of the main components of Cannabis and this will hopefully lead to a greater understanding of some of the actual research that is taking place globally and how the various compounds in Cannabis, have a beneficial effect on the human body and what this can mean for our physical and mental well-being.

Straight from the mouth of Wikipedia...Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis. Ruderalis may be included within sativa; or all three may be treated as subspecies of a single species, Cannabis sativa. The genus is indigenous to central Asia and the Indian subcontinent and is believed to have originated in the foothills of the Himalayas.

Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, for hemp oils, for medicinal purposes and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from Cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fibre. To satisfy the United Nations Narcotics Convention, some Cannabis strains have been bred to produce minimal levels of THC, the principal psychoactive compound and increase the levels of CBD, the main compound with medicinal potential.

There are 483 identifiable chemical constituents known to exist in the Cannabis plant, of these, at least 113 are identified as different cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are a class of diverse chemical compounds that act upon cannabinoid receptors in our cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain. Cannabinoids include the phytocannabinoids (found in Cannabis and some other plants), the endocannabinoids (produced naturally in the body by humans and animals), and synthetic cannabinoids (manufactured artificially). The most notable and commonly occurring cannabinoids within Cannabis are the phytocannabinoids, Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). Other notable cannabinoids include; CBDa, CBC, CBG and CBN.

Other important constituents of Cannabis are terpenes and terpenoids. Approximately 140 of the identifiable components known to exist, belong to a large class of aromatic organic hydrocarbons known as terpenes. The words terpene and terpenoid are increasingly used interchangeably, however, the main difference between terpenes and terpenoids is that terpenes are hydrocarbons (meaning the only elements present are carbon and hydrogen); whereas, terpenoids have been denatured by oxidation (drying and curing the flowers) or chemically modified. Terpenes also play an incredibly important role by providing the plant with natural protection from bacteria and fungus, insects and other environmental stresses. Common terpenes include; Myrecene, Limonene, Alpha & Beta-Pinene, Linalool, B-Caryophyllene, Caryophyllene Oxide, Terpinolene and Humulene. Cannabis plants also include a range of other naturally occurring components; Aldehydes, Alkalis, Amino Acids, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Ketones, Nitrogeneous Compounds, Plant Waxes and Vitamins. Reputable producers of Medicinal Cannabis solutions will provide a detailed Laboratory Report and/or a Certificate of Analysis, which gives a complete breakdown of all of the components within their products.

When it comes to understanding the potential health benefits of Cannabis it is extremely important to consider the inter-connectivity of all of the main components, covering the "Full Spectrum" of natural constituents. Cannabinoids, terpenes and terpenoids found in medicinal Cannabis play a big role in boosting the therapeutic effect of Cannabis, with the interplay of the various compounds known as the “Entourage Effect”.

Cannabis Research in Israel by Professor Raphael Mechoulam and his team, led directly to the discovery of the Endocannabinoid System - ECS, within the human body and in fact within all vertebrates. This is a biochemical communication network, which helps to regulate the body's physiology. Naturally occurring endocannabinoids and cannabinoids within the human body and the cannabis plant, bind with receptors (CB1 and CB2) in our cells to act upon the ECS, helping to modulate our physiological systems. This is now a major area of research for the scientific community and understanding this inter-connectivity forms the basis of many pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Now we have a better understanding of the components in Cannabis that have an effect on us, it will be easier to understand the aims of the scientific research, what components scientists are analysing and how this is impacting the lives of patients.